Nangan, formerly known as “Xiagan Tang” and “Nangan Tang, " is the largest of Mazu’s four townships and five islands, with a land area of 10.64 kilometers. It is the most developed of the islands, and the administrative, economic, transportation and military hub of Lienchiang County. Nangan consists of a township with nine villages under its jurisdiction, including Jieshou (Shanlong), where the Lienchiang Country Government is located. Fuao Harbor at Fuao Village is the center of seaborne transport in Mazu, and is where the Taiwan-Mazu Ferry and the Island Express Ferry moor.
The shape of the main island of Nangan resembles a rhinoceros. The "head" in the east is Fuxing Village (formerly Niujiao Village); while the tail in the west is Siwei Village (formerly Xiwei Village); Mt. Yuntai is the backbone, from which Niujiao Ridge, Niubei Ridge and other ridge formations extend outward into the ocean. The area has numerous villages that look out onto bays with mountains in the other three directions, such as Jieshou, Fuxing, Fuao, Qingshui, Zhenluo, Siwei, Mazu, Jinsha, and Renai and a few others.
Transportation to and from the Nangan area is relatively convenient and tourism is well-developed, and the island is home to a diverse variety of beautiful scenery. Some of the attractions include the jaw-dropping Beihai Tunnel and the Iron Fort (Tiebao) which juts up from the sea, two places representative of the frontline battleground spirit of Mazu. There are also sites of cultural and natural interest,of which the traditional settlement of Niujiao Village and the Magang Tianhou (Mazu) Temple are the best known, but there are also the Mazu Liquor Factory, Tunnel 88, the Mt. Yuntai Sightseeing Platform, the famous Siwei Village sunset, the Mazu Cultural Folklore Museum, and more. And if visitors are interested in purchasing local specialties or sampling local delicacies, Nangan has the most to offer.
Transportation to Nangan is more convenient than to any of the other Mazu Islands. Not only are there flights to and from Songshan and Taizhong, it is also a hub for travel by ferry to Beigan, Juguang, and Dongyin. In terms of travel on the island itself, public buses run infrequently, so scooters are the most flexible mode of transportation, while taxis are the most comfortable.